Industrial lighting design includes indoor lighting, outdoor lighting, stations, field lighting, underground lighting, road lighting, security lighting, obstacle lighting and so on.
The factory is a place for production of established products, generally consisting of factory buildings, offices and other ancillary rooms, various types of outdoor devices, stations, fields, and roads.
(1) Indoor lighting: internal lighting of auxiliary lighting for interior lighting and office buildings.
(2) Outdoor Device Lighting: Lighting for various outdoor devices. For example, the open-air operations of the shipbuilding industry, kettles, tanks, reaction towers of petrochemical companies, rotary kiln of building materials companies, belt corridors, blast furnace furnaces of metallurgical enterprises, walkways, platforms, gas cabinets of power stations, total pressure reduction Substation outdoor lighting, distribution equipment, outdoor pump station cooling tower (tower) and outdoor ventilation and dust removal equipment lighting.
(3) Station lighting: Lighting installed at stations, railway marshalling yards, parking lots, open storage yards, etc.
(4) Underground lighting: lighting in basements, cable tunnels, integrated corridors and tunnels.
(5) Road lighting: lighting of factory roads and other roads.
(6) Guard lighting: Lighting along the perimeter of the factory area and around the security area around key locations.
(7) Obstruction lighting: There are special high-rise buildings and structures such as chimneys in the factory area. According to regional aviation conditions, the signs need to be installed according to relevant regulations.
This chapter focuses on the interior lighting of the factory. For other lighting, see the relevant section of the lighting design manual.
1. Features of industrial plants
Industrial plants can be divided into single-storey industrial buildings and multi-storey industrial buildings according to their building structure types. The vast majority of multi-storey industrial buildings are found in the light industry, electronics, instrumentation, communications, and pharmaceutical industries. The floors of such plants are generally not very high. The lighting design is similar to the common scientific research laboratory buildings, and most of them use fluorescent lighting solutions. The production plants in the mechanical processing, metallurgy, and textile industries are generally single-layer industrial buildings, and according to the needs of production, there are more multi-span single-story industrial plants, that is, multi-span plant buildings that are arranged next to each other in parallel. The needs can be the same or different.
The single-storey factory building determines the building width (span) and length on the basis of meeting the requirements of a certain building module.
And height. The span of factory building B is generally 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 36m… The length of the factory building is between tens of meters and hundreds of meters. The height of the factory building is 5 to 6 meters in height, 30 to 40 meters in height, and even higher. The span and height of the plant are the main factors considered in the design of the plant lighting. In addition, according to industrial production continuity and the need for product transportation between sections, most industrial plants are equipped with cranes, which can be light weights ranging from 3 to 5 tons, and can reach several hundred tons. (Currently, the weight of a single crane in the machinery industry Up to 800t). Therefore, factory lighting is usually implemented with luminaires mounted on roof trusses.
2. Classification of industrial plants
According to the characteristics of product production, industrial plants can be roughly divided into the following three types.
(1) General production plants: Factory buildings under normal conditions.
(2) Explosion and fire risk production plants: Factory buildings that normally produce or store explosive and fire hazards.
(3) Production plants in harsh environments: production plants that are dusty, humid, high-temperature or have steam, vibration, smoke, acid-base corrosive gases or substances, and radioactive substances.
According to the above classification, factory lighting design should be strictly followed in accordance with the different production conditions.
Factory lighting should follow the following general principles for design.
1. The choice of lighting
(1) For high illumination requirements, the density of working positions is not large, and mixed lighting should be adopted in places where general illumination is not reasonable.
(2) The illumination of the work is not required to be high, or when it is not suitable to install local lighting when the technical conditions of production are limited, or when the mixed lighting is unreasonable, general lighting should be used alone.
(3) Partial general lighting can be used when a work area needs to be higher than general lighting illumination.
(4) Partial lighting should be added when the general illumination of the partition cannot meet the illumination requirements.
(5) Local lighting should not be installed in the work area.
2. Illumination standard
The illuminance value of factory lighting design should be selected according to the national standard GB 50034-2004 “architectural lighting design standards”. The standard specifies the illuminance values of general lighting for 16 industrial buildings. The illuminance standards for more specific workplaces in various factories should also be in accordance with relevant industry regulations.
3. Lighting quality
Lighting quality is a sign of measuring the merits of a factory’s lighting design. It mainly includes the following:
(1) Select lamps with high efficiency and suitable light distribution curve. According to the luminaire hanging height on the plant house frame index according to the chamber, the value of the selected light fixtures.
When RI = 0.5 ~ 0.8, narrow light fixtures should be used;
When RI = 0.8 ~ 1.65, it is advisable to use medium light fixtures;
When RI=1.65～5, wide light fixtures should be used.
(2) Select the lighting source with appropriate color temperature and color rendering index to meet production requirements.
(3) To achieve the specified illuminance uniformity: The illumination intensity of the general illumination in the operation area should not be less than 0.7, and the illuminance uniformity around the operation area should not be less than 0.5.
(4) Meet the quality requirements of the direct glare limitation of lighting: Uniform glare value (UGR) is in accordance with the provisions of GB 50034-2004. That is, the general allowable value is 22 and the fine processing value is 19.
(5) Take measures to reduce the impact of voltage fluctuations and voltage flicker on lighting and prevent stroboscopic effects.
(6) The lighting device should work under the allowable working voltage. In the place where metal halide lamps and high pressure sodium lamps are used, compensation capacitors should be used to increase their power factor.
Lighting can be divided into: general lighting, district general lighting, local lighting and hybrid lighting. Its applicable principle should meet the following requirements:
- First, it is advisable to use general lighting when unsuitable for installation of local lighting or mixed lighting is unreasonable;
- Second, when a work area needs to be higher than the general lighting illumination, sub-zone general lighting can be used;
- Third, for the higher illumination requirements, the density of the working position is not large, and the installation of general lighting is not reasonable places, should adopt hybrid lighting;
Fourth, local lighting should not be installed in a workplace.
Lighting category editing
Can be divided into: normal lighting, emergency lighting, duty lighting, security lighting and obstacle lighting. Among them, emergency lighting includes spare lighting, safety lighting, and evacuation lighting, and its applicable principle should meet the following requirements:
- When the normal lighting is extinguished due to a fault, equipment lighting shall be installed in places where it is necessary to ensure normal work or activities continue;
- When normal lighting is extinguished due to a fault, safe lighting shall be installed at places where it is necessary to ensure the safety of personnel at risk.
- When normal lighting is extinguished due to a fault, evacuation lighting shall be installed on the exits and passages that need to ensure the safe evacuation of personnel;
- Fourth, on-duty lighting should use part of normal lighting that can be controlled individually or use part or all of emergency lighting;
- Security lighting should be installed within the guards as required;
- The installation of obstacle lighting should strictly comply with the relevant regulations of the aviation or transportation departments in the region.
When selecting the type of lamp according to environmental conditions, attention should be paid to environmental temperature, humidity, vibration, pollution, dust, corrosion, explosion and fire hazard media. The following three environmental conditions to choose lamps.
First, the general industrial plant lighting options
(1) In the normal environment (heating or non-heating), open type luminaires are generally used.
(2) Lamps that contain a lot of dust, but are not exposed to explosion and fire hazards, use lamps that are compatible with the amount of dust.
The amount of dust in a dusty environment is measured as the concentration in air (mg/m3) or the amount of sedimentation [mg/(m2·d)].
For general dusty environments, dust-proof (IPSX) lamps should be used. For dusty environments or general dusty environments where conductive dust is present, dust-tight (IP6X) lamps should be used. IP65 rated lamps should be used for conductive fiber (such as carbon fiber) environment. For lamps that are frequently flushed with water, no less than IP65 rated lamps should be used.
Clean rooms are areas within the factory that require strict control of environmental conditions. The main function of lighting is to make the work activities clearly visible, thus forming safe, comfortable and effective working conditions.