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Plant Lamps – Fuel for your Plants

by TUBU

January 6, 2024


Plant lights, as the name suggests, are lamps for plants. Plant lights mimic the principle that plants need sunlight for photosynthesis, supplementing or replacing sunlight completely. After application testing, LED plant lights are perfect for plant growth, flowering and fruiting. General indoor plants and flowers, due to the lack of natural light will grow worse and worse with time, but by using the LED plant light irradiation of the spectrum (light quality combination) required by the plant, not only can promote its growth, but also extend the flowering period and improve the quality of flowers. And this efficient light source system applied to greenhouses, greenhouses and other facilities and other agricultural production. On the one hand, it can solve the ills of insufficient sunshine resulting in tomatoes, cucumbers and other greenhouse vegetable taste decline. On the other hand, it can also make the winter greenhouse tomato and fruit vegetables ahead of the market before and after the Chinese New Year, so as to achieve the purpose of anti-season cultivation.

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Basic Concepts

Solar electromagnetic radiation and visible light

Sunlight is the source of all living things to survive, we live in the planet so vibrant, are derived from sunlight, we see the sun is the sun's electromagnetic radiation of the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation is when the vibration is propagated at the speed of light when the physical phenomenon, you need to understand some of the basic concepts: the frequency is the number of repetitions of the wave per unit of time, the frequency of the unit of hertz (Hz), the wavelength is between two adjacent The wavelength is the distance between two adjacent wave peaks (or troughs), the unit of wavelength is a metre, the speed of light = wavelength × frequency, the relationship between the period and frequency: frequency × period = 1, the period and the wavelength indicate the same position, but the period indicates that the completion of a wavelength of the time needed to complete the period of time, the period of the unit is a second.

The wavelength of the vibration wave propagated at the speed of light by 1 km to 10 picometres when we are familiar with radio waves, mobile phone communications, television transmission of microwaves, military radar, medical X-rays, γ-rays, etc., are different wavelengths at the speed of light in the application of the propagation of the sun's radiation is only a part of it. In the visible range, the human eye observes different colours of light as visually presented. These colours of light mixed together is what we usually see as white light, which is expressed in terms of colour temperature. The range of wavelengths of solar radiation that we can test on the earth's surface is about 280 to 2 500 nm, and solar radiation below 280 nm and greater than 2 500 nm wavelengths cannot be observed on the ground due to the strong absorption of ozone, water vapor and other atmospheric molecules in the earth's atmosphere.

When the wavelength in the range of 400 ~ 750 nm, the human eye can feel these wavelengths of light emitted, we call it visible light, solar radiation is mainly concentrated in the visible part of the solar radiation for all living things on earth has an important role in the evolution of life; scientists use spectra to analyse electromagnetic radiation and visible light, we study the sunlight, artificial light sources, plant absorption of light can not be separated from spectral diagrams We can't study sunlight, artificial light sources and light absorbed by plants without a spectrogram. The wavelength range of the solar spectrum is 280 ~ 1 100 nm, we divide this range of the spectrum into several parts: ultraviolet light, wavelengths from 280 nm to 400 nm; visible light, wavelengths from 400 nm to 750 nm; infrared light, wavelengths from 750 nm to 1 100 nm. in agricultural cultivation, the study of wavelengths from 300 to 1 100 nm of this range of application of the solar radiation Spectral distribution maps are useful as a reference in the study of the sun's radiative effects on plants.

The colour segments correspond to the visual colours of different ranges of radiation wavelengths. Sunlight is composed of different colours of light, and the visible part of sunlight is mainly a mixture of red, green and blue light. Red, green and blue light are called the three basic light colours, and man-made light sources also use white light mixed with these three basic light colours. In the visible light range, the most sensitive light (that is, we feel the brightest light) is yellow light (peak is 555 nm), the human eye is the least sensitive light is blue light.

When a rainbow appears in the sky, we tend to see yellow, red and green, and see a very small percentage of blue. The most sensitive light and the least sensitive light of the human eye is the visual function of the human eye to determine, does not mean that the size of the light radiation energy, blue light carries more energy than yellow light, but the human eye feels the brightest yellow light, to provide artificial radiation to the plant, can not be felt by the human eye light and darkness of the light to judge the effect of plant photosynthesis.

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Photosynthesis in Plants

Plants are the only organisms capable of converting the energy of sunlight into mass. Photosynthesis in plants is the basis of all life on earth, and plants not only provide humans with the oxygen necessary for their survival, but also provide them with food and energy. At present, there are about 300,000 species of plants known to people. The process by which plants convert solar radiation energy into organic matter is called plant photosynthesis. To be precise, photosynthesis refers to the biochemical process by which plants, algae and certain bacteria, through photosynthetic pigments, use light energy to convert carbon dioxide (or hydrogen sulphide) and water into organic matter and release oxygen (or hydrogen), and is the theoretical basis of plant photosynthesis.

Plants carry out energy conversion by means of photosynthetic pigments, which include chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, etc.; according to the law of conservation of energy conversion, when plants carry out photosynthesis, they convert light energy into organic matter for storage. Plants need carbon dioxide and water to complete photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, plants absorb carbon dioxide and water, release oxygen and produce organic matter. Chloroplasts within plant leaves are the site of photosynthesis in green plants. Photosynthesis in plants only occurs within chloroplasts, the tissue structure of plant leaves as seen in a high magnification microscope, the green particles are chloroplasts, and there are a large number of chloroplasts within the leaf blades of plants.

The chloroplasts of most plants contain mainly chlorophylls (chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b), β-carotenoids (carotene and lutein) photosensitisers (Pfr, Pr). All these pigments are involved in photosynthesis. Shows the process of absorption and reflection of light by chloroplasts, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b mainly absorb blue-violet and red light, carotenoids mainly absorb blue-violet light, and photosensitisers mainly absorb red and far-infrared light; green plants have the highest content of chlorophyll, moreover, chlorophyll absorbs less green light, and most of the green light is reflected so that chloroplasts appear green. The main component in the leaf tissue of plants is chloroplasts, so, the leaves of plants are also green in colour.

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Introduction to LEDs and LED Plant Lights

What is LED

LED is the English abbreviation for light-emitting diode, belongs to the semiconductor devices, LED began to be used in 1962, before 1993, LED only red, green, yellow light devices, mainly used as indicators, 1993 blue LED industrial production, four elements of red LED and blue LED applications in plant cultivation has gradually been developed, LED used in plant cultivation has the following Characteristics: can create a combination of different wavelengths of artificial radiation source; electric power to radiation power conversion efficiency; LED belongs to the cold light source, the light emitted without thermal radiation; single-sided light-emitting mode, the highest utilization rate of light radiation; radiation output can be adjusted by the drive current; radiation attenuation rate is low, the average life expectancy of more than 30,000 hours; power consumption is low, low cost of planting; can be driven by low-voltage direct current, you can Achieve digital scale control; can be easily accessed solar, wind power supply system; LED device production process does not cause environmental pollution; product cost is high, the initial investment.

Some Technical Requirements of LED Plant Lights

The patented product REH (balanced heat dissipation bracket) developed by HOLLOW solid light source research institute is the best heat dissipation structure for high power LEDs at present, with excellent heat dissipation performance, ERH can be equipped with reflector cups and lenses to achieve a variety of optical output angles, at the same time, REH has the ability to prevent static electricity, so that the life of the product can be guaranteed more originally. In terms of radiation efficiency, HOLLI adopts the optimal design theory and innovatively puts forward the MOL secondary optical design (Minimum Optical Loss Technology), the MOL technology is based on the reflector cup, and the reflective surface of the reflector cup is coated with a special reflective coating, which makes the output efficiency of the light increase to more than 92%, and at the same time, through the adoption of the MOL technology of the optical design, it makes the intensity of the light at the centre of the reflection and the edge of the reflection tend to be homogeneous, and the radiation surface is more uniform. At the same time, through the optical design of MOL technology, the light intensity between the reflective centre and the edges tends to be homogeneous, and the radiation uniformity of the radiating surface has been greatly improved, and the light distribution curve produced by ERH in combination with MOL is the most suitable for the plant lamps.

In terms of product application evaluation, industrial-grade simulation technology is adopted, and the light distribution data and effect of product application can be analysed in advance through simulation technology before product development. Module in the container plant factory planting application, each square metre needs 68W power consumption power, DLA reaches 10, vegetable planting effect is good, the right side is the application of seedling. The ultimate design goal of plant artificial radiation source is to achieve low energy consumption and high efficiency of plant cultivation, therefore, the plant light design is much more complex than the lighting product design process, first of all, you need to understand the requirements of the planting process, greenhouse applications need to test the planting environment of the DLI, the spectral pattern of the plant light and the secondary optical design requires professional design, the design of the plant light relies on the design experience and technology to support the ability.

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In terms of product application evaluation, industrial-grade simulation technology is adopted, and the light distribution data and effect of product application can be analysed in advance through simulation technology before product development. Module in the container plant factory planting application, each square metre needs 68W power consumption power, DLA reaches 10, vegetable planting effect is good, the right side is the application of seedling. The ultimate design goal of plant artificial radiation source is to achieve low energy consumption and high efficiency of plant cultivation, therefore, the plant light design is much more complex than the lighting product design process, first of all, you need to understand the requirements of the planting process, greenhouse applications need to test the planting environment of the DLI, the spectral pattern of the plant light and the secondary optical design requires professional design, the design of the plant light relies on the design experience and technology to support the ability.

At present, the light quality and light quantity of the spectral design of the plant light belongs to the relative confidentiality of the enterprise, so the specific light quality and light quantity and the application of the application of this is not too much of a narrative, there can be such a consensus: the enterprise needs to face the market to make a profit, to have the technical services and technical capabilities, plant light spectrum is easy to be cracked, but the technical services and technical capabilities are not in the scope of cracking, only with their own excellent technology, marketing can be guaranteed, the plant light design relies on design experience and technical support capabilities. Marketing can be guaranteed, plant lights in the planting process is only one of the conditions, not the only one, plant lights only in line with the requirements of the planting process, in order to play the best results.

About the author

TUBU is an expert in LED light research with more than 10 years of experience in this field. We hope that through our TUBU research, LED lighting technology will become more popular and bring greater convenience and comfort to people's lives.

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